Calculate a unit rate (per 01 m2) for applying 02 coats of Emulsion paint on a plastered wall surface using the following data.

## Unit rate calculation – Examples – Concrete

Calculate a unit rate for supplying & placing 1:2:4 (20 mm) concrete in a column foundation, using the data given below.

## Unit Rate Calculations – Examples – Rubble Masonry work

Calculate a unit rate per 1 m2 of 350 mm thick rubble masonry wall using 1:5 Cement : Sand mix. Use the following data.

## Depreciation

The depreciation can be defined as “the decline in the market value of an asset”. A machine depreciates (decline in value) because;- it wears out during usage, and – no longer possible to perform its functions well as when it was new.

## Bid Price and Unbalanced Bids

The total price of a bid consists of the cost and the markup. The cost includes direct and indirect costs. The markup includes profit margin, financial charges (cost of borrowing), and an allowance for risk margin.

## Estimating Activity cost

Estimating the cost of any work items includes estimating the cost of labor, equipment, and material. The analysis of a given job requires an in-depth examination of the plans and specifications given with the bid documents, an evaluation of the soil investigation report, etc.

## Labor productivity – Unit rate analysis

The construction industry, to which these workers belong, is one of the most non-automated or labor-intensive industries in the world. The labor cost element of a building construction project may vary from 30 to 50%, and sometimes can be as high as 60% of the total construction cost

## Singly Reinforced Beams – BS 8110:1:1997 – Example 1

A simply supported rectangular concrete beam of 7 m span carries a characteristic dead load (Gk), including self-weight of the beam, and imposed load (Qk) of 7 kNm and 5 kNm respectively.

## Doubly Reinforced Beams – BS 8110:1:1997 – Example 1

A reinforced concrete beam has a rectangular section of breadth b = 225 mm and effective depth d = 450 mm. It has to carry a design moment of 300.0 kNm.

## DISPUTES IN CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS

Contractual disputes arise due to a series of factors, combined in various ways to produce arguments and disagreements.